Important Links

Hock's Blog

Hock's Downloads


Hock's Facebook

Hock's Seminars

Hock's Shopsite

Hock's Web Page

New Products

Combat Kicks VID

Critical Contact VID

Death Grip of Knife VID

Dominant/Counter VID

First Contact VID

Impact Weapons Book

Knife Book

The Other Hand VID

Lauric Enterprises, Inc.
1314 W. McDermott
Ste 106-811
Allen, TX 75013




W. Hock Hochheim's

           Combat Centric

Talk Forum for Military, Police, Martial Artists and Aware Citizenry

Hock Hochheim's Combat Talk Forum

  • March 22, 2018, 09:13:32 PM
  • Welcome, Guest
Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length

Author Topic: Some Science from Force Science  (Read 863 times)


  • Administrator
  • Level 4
  • *****
  • Posts: 6372
Some Science from Force Science
« on: February 08, 2007, 11:43:56 AM »

From Dr. Bill Lewinski -

"The average officer pulling the trigger as fast as he can on a Glock, one of the fastest-cycling semiautos, requires 1/4 second to discharge each round.

"There is no way an officer can react, track, shoot and reliably hit a threatening suspect's forearm or a weapon in a suspect's hand in the time spans involved.

"Even if the suspect held his weapon arm steady for half a second or more, an accurate hit would be highly unlikely, and in police shootings the suspect and his weapon are seldom stationary. Plus, the officer himself may be moving as he shoots.

"The upper arms move more slowly than the lower arms and hands. But shooting at the upper arms, there's a greater chance you're going to hit the suspect's brachial artery or center mass, areas with a high probability of fatality. Then where does shooting only to wound come in?

"Legs tend initially to move slower than arms and to maintain more static positions. However, areas of the lower trunk and upper thigh are rich with vascularity. A suspect who's hit there can bleed out in seconds if one of the major arteries is severed, so again shooting just to wound may not result in just wounding.

"On the other hand, if an officer manages to take a suspect's legs out non-fatally, that still leaves the offender's hands free to shoot. His ability to threaten lives hasn't necessarily been stopped."

As to preventing so-called "overkill" from shots that are fired after a threat is neutralized, Lewinski offers these observations:

"Twenty years ago officers were trained to 'shoot then assess.' They fired 1 or 2 rounds, then stopped to see the effect. This required 1/4 to 1/2 second, during which time the suspect could keep firing, if he hadn't been incapacitated.

"Now they're taught to 'shoot and assess,' to judge the effect of their shots as they continue to fire, an on-going process. This allows the officer to continually defend himself, but because the brain is trying to do 2 things at once--shoot and assess--a very significant change in the offender's behavior needs to take place in order for the officer to recognize the change of circumstances.

"A suspect falling to the ground from being shot would be a significant change. But by analyzing the way people fall, we've determined that it takes 2/3 of a second to a full second or more for a person to crumple to the ground from a standing position. And that is when they've been hit in a motor center that produces instant loss of muscle tension.

"While an officer is noticing this change, he is going to continue firing if he is shooting as fast as he can under the stress of trying to save his life. On average, from the time an officer perceives a change in stimulus to the time he is able to process that and actually stop firing, 2 to 3 additional rounds will be expended.

"Shooting beyond the moment a threat is neutralized is not a willful, malicious action in most cases. It's an involuntary factor of human dynamics."


  • Level 3
  • ****
  • Posts: 139
Re: Some Science from Force Science
« Reply #1 on: February 20, 2007, 05:08:19 AM »

Once again,"Bravo Lewinski!"  It's only common sense but now we have science to back it up.  I'm not going to rush out and buy the book but it's darn good to know we have some science on the side of the LEO who his forced to defend his or her actions in court.  I wonder though how many investigators on shootings are aware of this information?   
"Adapt and overcome"