Hock Hochheim's Combat Talk Forum

General Category => Unarmed Combatives => Topic started by: Hock on December 18, 2007, 06:51:50 AM

Title: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Hock on December 18, 2007, 06:51:50 AM
This just in from Force Science. Bit long to read, but...

"Canadian Response" technique brings quick restraint of combative, super-strong subjects, FSRC advisor tells excited delirium conference
I. "Canadian Response" technique brings quick restraint of combative, super-strong subjects, FSRC advisor tells excited delirium conference

A technique for "working smarter rather than harder" to restrain unusually strong, combative subjects was described by an advisor to the Force Science Research Center at a recent international conference on in-custody deaths that featured presentations by nearly 20 of the world's leading authorities on excited delirium (ED).

The technique, which requires a coordinated effort by several officers, involves "humanely misaligning" a struggling suspect's muscles and joints to control his movements and reduce his capability of resisting while restraint devices are applied, explains Chris Lawrence, who outlined the tactic at the 2nd annual symposium of the Institute for the Prevention of In-Custody Deaths last month [11/07] in Las Vegas.

"A resisting subject can generate significant power with his arms, legs, and shoulders," Lawrence says. "If you take these out of their natural power alignment, the individual can be controlled with less effort and with greater safety."

Initially conceived as a response tool for ED confrontations, the procedure can be used effectively in managing a wide variety of strong, combative subjects, from drunks to the violently enraged and drug-fueled, says Lawrence, a prominent Canadian defensive tactics trainer and a technical advisor to FSRC at Minnesota State University-Mankato.

The technique was devised, tested, and refined by a cadre of Canadian police trainers led by Lawrence, in consultation with street officers, DT instructors, and ED medical experts scattered through North America. Lawrence, a columnist for FSRC's strategic partner PoliceOne.com, has researched and reported on ED developments to LE audiences for about 9 years.

BENEFITS. "Often when officers try to control a resistant person who's exerting tremendous strength, as in excited delirium, they end up trying to out-muscle him," Lawrence told Force Science News. "This requires significant exertion, and unless the officers' efforts are greater than the suspect's, they won't prevail. Even if they succeed, there's a risk of injury to the officers, the subject, sometimes even to innocent bystanders.

"Rather than work harder, the suggestion is to work smarter," with the coordinated application of leverage and body mechanics. With this method, which Lawrence informally calls the Canadian Response, "even officers whose size and strength can't begin to match that of the suspect should still quickly prevail, with a greater margin of safety for everyone involved."

In training sessions, Lawrence selects "the biggest guy in the class" to role-play the subject and "5 other big people" to try to control him. The officers are told to "use any technique you want to get the subject into a prone, controlled position," while the subject is instructed to "do anything you want to get out."

Typically, Lawrence claims, "within 4 to 5 seconds, the subject has been able to rise up at least to his hands and knees."

After instruction in the Canadian Response, 5 of the smallest people in class take on the biggest one. "I stand there ordering him to get up, but he can't. The usual reaction is, 'I can't believe this.'"

"The Canadian Response shares the key component of all good physical control techniques," notes FSRC's executive director, Dr. Bill Lewinski. "It allows officers to maximize their biomechanical advantages and diminishes the biomechanical advantages of the subject. When done well, it should literally rob the subject of his power, regardless of his size, strength, and physical and emotional intensity."

Maximizing speed and minimizing exertion in achieving effective restraint is especially important when dealing with ED subjects who are not compliant with verbal persuasion, Lawrence explains.

"There's nothing a police officer with a first-aid certificate can do to help the subject at the side of the road. Experts agree that getting these people to a medical facility as promptly as possible without unnecessarily intensifying their agitated, overstressed state with a prolonged struggle appears to increase their chances of surviving what can be a fatal episode. Unless they are physically controlled, however, ambulance crews won't transport them, so restraint, when necessary, becomes imperative as a first step in receiving medical care."

GROUND POSITIONING. The Canadian Response works best with 4-5 officers concentrating on a subject who's on the ground, front side down. (Lawrence does not specifically address how he gets there, but the presumption is that he's tackled, Tasered, tripped, or otherwise brought down and maneuvered to a prone position; pain compliance will not reliably do the job because the subject may well be impervious to pain.)

"The ground provides a consistent , reliable platform that works to the officers' mechanical advantage," Lawrence says, "and getting the subject proned out actually results in lesser force being necessary than if he were on his back. So long as the subject is face down, you're in less danger from his natural weapons," his limbs.

ARM CONTROL. Experimentation showed that even highly muscled individuals display the least strength in weight-lifting when their arms are straight out at their sides, Lawrence says, so this is the position the first 2 officers want to get the proned subject's arms into-extended out at an angle of 90 degrees or slightly higher from the ribcage.

If the officers sit facing away from the subject, they can each grab an arm, fully extend it, clamp it with the crook of their elbow, and lock it in against their side and across their thigh-a seated variation of the arm-bar maneuver. With one hand controlling the subject's wrist, they turn his palm up, then use their upper-body weight to lean against and apply pressure to the back of his deltoid (shoulder) muscle, pushing toward the ground.

"This pins him, without causing injury," Lawrence says. "By keeping his arms locked out and anchored, his wrists turned and off the ground, and his shoulders down, you misalign his muscles and joints. His arms are less effective in offering resistance, but his ability to breathe remains uncompromised."

In some cases, Lawrence points out, subjects may go prone with their arms tucked under them, hands clasped tight against their chest-what Lawrence calls a powerful "turtle position." To avoid a strenuous struggle to gets the arms free, you are often best off to use a baton as a leverage tool and pry them out.

LEG CONTROL. The next 2 officers secure the subject's legs. "Again, the principle is misalignment of the muscles to reduce the subject's ability to generate power," Lawrence says.

These officers each capture a foot and get on the ground between the subject's legs to move the heels as far apart as possible. Pushing against each other back-to-back can help gain leverage in parting and extending the legs.

Continuing to face away from each other, each officer then wraps his/her body around an ankle, turning the toes out and bringing his/her weight to bear against the end of the long leg bones to hold the limbs down securely.

"This positioning substantially reduces the subject's ability to raise his legs and exert himself with the most powerful parts of his body," Lawrence says.

5th OFFICER. If an additional officer is present, he or she can be plugged in where needed most.

If more control is necessary, this officer, kneeling at the subject's head, can apply pressure through his/her hands to the subject's shoulders, roughly where the rotator cuffs are (not on the spine). "This tends to be more effective than holding the subject's head," Lawrence explains, "because a head hold leaves more possibility for the subject to torque his shoulders, move his upper trunk substantially, and try to get up or buck to a more powerful position."

If the subject seems well-controlled, the 5th officer "can also work as a quarterback, overseeing the process and scanning for threats." Or he/she can move in to begin the handcuffing process.

HANDCUFFING. The Canadian Response involves the use of multiple pairs of handcuffs, not only for easier initial application but also because this allows the subject to be transported by ambulance in a more desirable position for monitoring.

If an extra officer is not available, the arm-control officers must handle the cuffing on their own. If they have trouble reaching their cuffs, a leg officer may be able to hand up a set to get the process started. "This is very flexible," Lawrence says.

One arm-control officer goes first, transitioning from the pin position by raising the subject's wrist high, turning the arm, and bending the elbow so the arm folds behind the subject's back in a cuffing position. The officer turns to face the subject's spine as he/she brings the arm around. The subject's upper arm is held firmly between the officer's knees, one of which is placed over the subject's scapula, the other on the ground. Once a cuff is on that wrist, the other officer repeats the process with the other arm.

Now the unused portions of the 2 handcuff sets can be hooked together. Or, with large subjects, they can be connected to a third set of cuffs interposed between them. "The idea is to create enough separation between the subject's hands that he can lie flat, without riding on his cuffed wrists, once he is turned over on his back for ambulance transport," Lawrence says.

He warns, however, that a subject who must be transported by patrol car rather than by ambulance should not be handcuffed with extended space between his wrists.

Important: The subject should not be turned onto his back until his legs are firmly restrained.

LEG RESTRAINT. Once the subject is handcuffed, his legs are then brought together, under control, and are securely strapped together. Once the strap is cinched snug, the loose end can be stood on to keep the subject from moving his legs. Note: This is a hobble restraint, not hog-tying.

TRANSPORT. After the legs are strapped, the subject can be rolled to his side. When he's transferred to a gurney for transport to a medical facility, the strap can be tied to the end of the stretcher to keep the subject from raising or thrashing his legs. EMS personnel will apply additional restraints of their own, but at least one officer should still ride in the ambulance for added security.

"With the daisy chain of handcuffs, the subject should be able to lie on his back with his hands beside his hips so that the paramedics or EMTs can better monitor him," Lawrence says. "With him supine [face up], they're better able to watch his breathing, use a stethoscope to check his heart, apply a blood pressure cuff, start an IV, and so on.

"The usual gurney strapping will prevent him from sliding the cuffs below his butt and attempting escape."

Lawrence cautions that use of this control procedure is by no means an iron-clad guarantee against injury to officers or subjects. Nor can it assure that a subject beset by ED won't still die suddenly and unexpectedly, despite the best efforts of police and medical personnel. "There is still a great deal that's unknown about this complicated phenomenon," he says, "including exactly why the ED experience culminates in death for some of these subjects. Plus, no tactic is guaranteed to work on a particular subject, and every control technique has some element of risk.

"But based on what we know so far, the Canadian Response seems to provide hope for safely handing an afflicted subject off to medical personnel. It requires no new equipment for officers to buy or to carry on their belts or in their car, and it incorporates the kind of simple DT movements that they are already familiar with."

Obviously, performing smoothly as a team requires practice. "But officers who've trained in the technique are amazed at how successful it can be," Lawrence says.

He plans to demonstrate the technique at the ILEETA (International Law Enforcement Educators and Trainers Assn.) 2008 training conference, Apr. 1-5 in Wheeling, IL, a suburb of Chicago.

Lawrence can be reached at chris.lawrence@policeone.com.

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Hock on December 18, 2007, 07:01:37 AM
Okay, see if I get this right.

  1) Super Bad Guy down on chest.

  2) Two people bear hug leg each leg and spread them.

  3) Two people spread out each arm and get in the
                   a) knee to shoulder
                   b) Arm/elbow hyper-extended on thigh
                   c) (sort of a very classic grappling position)


                   a) classic torso to torso arm bar wrap and shoulder to ground capture
                   b) officers laying on ground, arm warpped around shoulder joint. THEIR legs spread
                   c) they twist arms in

   4) Fifth guy roams and handcuffs.


Comment one -I  think ALL the police wold love more to know how to get super bad guy on the ground, and then wrangle the arms straight out. The leg grab/bear hug is very easy.

Comment two - where am I gonna find five quick, handy guys? But jail teams have them handy, but then they are tasing people now.

Comment three -  this is presented like ahh, like aahhh the latest secret/cure TRS tape/discovery. All we need now is that it comes from a Waffen WW II crypt and it could be a Lt X ad. (I hear Lt X has promoted himself to Captain "Johnny" - or some such thing - .)

Comment four - yes, there are police and jailers untrained enough to be shown this and be utterly amazed, so it must be shown.

Comment five and more....(see yours below!)

Anyway I will be teaching at the next big conference where the special Canadians will be demonstrating this new innovation! So I will see and hear more...

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: WTAC on December 18, 2007, 02:11:22 PM
So doe's this mean no more pig piles   :'( 
I agree I don't seeing LE actually being able to use this in the "real world".
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Trainer on December 18, 2007, 07:10:32 PM
I happen to know chris (the author) and up till now he has said and done many credible things. This however is a crock oh shit. I can tell you that this is NOT going to be the Canadian response. the Canadian response when dealing with ED/EDP is to use less lethal to engage the subject (covered of by lethal force of course)where time and equipment allows.

when i first saw this i had two questions, 1, How do we get him down and 2, where the hell did we get 5 guys from?

the answer to the first question can bea answered by a tackle (good ole pile on) the answer to the 2 question means that we have waited for backup to arrive which means that we have him cornerd and he isnt going anywhere, so we have time to pull taser, less lethal 12 guage, 20 guage or talk him down.

Im not buying this. I think i know why he has done this, politics strikes again.

we have a had a few deaths up here over the last several months involving what amounts to (after autopsy) ED. The left wing ass nazis are crying for alternatives to taser etc. which means we all have to take a hit from johhny crack head.
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: jmech on December 18, 2007, 09:59:05 PM
I dont see what the big deal about this is, this is very similar to what the Wisconsin Defensive Tactics program has been teaching since at least 1996, only they call it "multiple officer ground stabilization", not as cool sounding as "THE CANADIAN RESPONSE".  Only Wisconsin teaches it with the bad guy holding his arms underneath his chest and the officers have to secure them and then pull them out to a straightened position.

Guess they should have hired a weightlifting guy to explain the biomechanics of the arm position, come up with a fancy name, and marketed better.

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: whitewolf on December 18, 2007, 11:30:15 PM
Trainer-good response-In the past Security officers that were working for  me have  had to hold down a thief or problem type-we never took 5  men (we did not have them) to hold him down-once he was on his stomach -knee in back of  neck -grabbing hair beside the lower part of the ear-few lifts of head and tapping the nose on the cement-etc etc did the trick-besides all that it just does not sound right what the canadian passed on-what happens if one of the 5 never did this drill-what  happens if one is late comming to the rescue-etc etc..just to much and too confusing for  me.. stay  safe whitewolf
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Hock on December 19, 2007, 06:18:48 AM
Keep in mind that this team idea is for the extreme "excited delerium" superman.
Ordinarily I just sit on the guys back - the old school, Police Jusdo "reverse saddle" position. From there a person needs a lot of stregnth to get up, but can. If they do, I was taught to choke him out but now that is so scary and a no-no for many police agency rules of today....

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Trainer on December 19, 2007, 06:49:35 AM
sleeper holds, LVNR etc etc is not taught to new police recruits here in Ontario. It is considered a lethal force tactic ::). Police research did a sudy and found that IF aplied correctly it does not kill, maim, cripple or do the dishes. That being said the Chief Medical Coronor dos not like it, so we dont teach it. It believe that the RCMP still teach it out west. The reality here in Ontario is that you will learn BASIC DT at the police college (just enough to get your ass kicked) and then annual recert is done at and by the service that hired you and in accordance with that services policy and procedure and apart from a flash in the pan i cant see this canadian response flying, unless of course the white shirts look at it and fall in love with it.
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: whitewolf on December 19, 2007, 11:31:01 AM
Trainer and all-I get to  see a  lot of TV over here on newscasts that could not even be shown  in the US or Canada-when the police  out to stop a riot/problem/bad  guy-bam smack to the head with a club a few  times then few  kicks when he  is  down then drag  his ass away--no aclu-to say  they did a bad thing-i am not going to get into the politics that goes along  with  it just passing on that the Police are not constrained by what they  can or  can  not do. whitewolf
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Trainer on December 19, 2007, 03:11:54 PM
Some people just need a stick to the head, its that simple
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Karl on December 19, 2007, 09:00:26 PM
Sounds wacky.

Q. How did you get the Guy on the Ground in the first place?

Q. Where do i find 5 guys to help me at 2 am.

Most Cops, Security work 1 or 2 up.

If we would use 5 Guys to restrain 1 Guy, i can just see the Newspaper Yelling about Police brutality.

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: whitewolf on December 19, 2007, 09:35:20 PM
Trainer and all-I  was reviewing this again-another question pops up-in the heat of the moment-who is in charge-senior  man/Woman? what if all same rank? and god forbid all 5 are on the ground holding this  guy  down and lo and behold another bad guy pops up and sees all the POs on the ground-dam he attacks-who is covering their 6-i guess we could go  on and on about the pros and cons-guess Hock has to  observe this in canada and report  back on his observations-stay  safe whitewolf
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: Hock on December 19, 2007, 11:31:04 PM
The good news is....

I have had pretty extensive training on "excited delerium" subjects from high level doctors and institutes actually completely dedicated to excited delerium! - the state which this team effort is really designed for. There has not been a single incident on files that I have seen or heard of where a second suspect was involved in an excited delerium case. It is a rare malady that one person achieves this insane, super state and they almost always are alone.

But yes, it would be a problem with multiple suspects.

Some police are already complaining since the public release (last Tuesday) of this strategy, and that 5 people are more than their whole midnight shft!


Years ago, ten years ago, then Iowa police chief Mike Gillette and I organized the "Double Eagles" concept/program of having two officers grab and execute the same move - say a gooseneck - on both suspect's arms. One of the problems we ran across is that many if not most times, you worked with another officer who does not know what you will do and has not trained with you, alongside you-enough.

But yes, this would take supervision and training.

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: jmech on December 22, 2007, 05:11:42 PM
The way its taught here is as a hierarchy of what to secure based on how many officers there are available.  First officer secures the right arm, and if possible, both arms.  second secures the left arm, third gets the legs, if a fourth officer is there, then the legs are shared by 3 and 4; and fifth officer secures the head. if there is an officer at the head, they then become "in charge" and talk to the bad guy and give directions to the other officers about cuffing, searching, getting the bad guy up, etc. Otherwise, it is given to one of the two officers on the arms. That way it can be applicable for UP TO five officers, not reliant on having all five officers.  And this topic only gets a small amount of time given to instruction and practice, and is taught after single officer cuffing and two officer cuffing, which each receive much more time for instruction to the recruits.

Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: whitewolf on December 23, 2007, 12:25:50 AM
JMECH-thanks it  makes a little more sense the way you discribed it-whitewolf
Title: Re: Five on One: The Canadian Response
Post by: edude69 on December 26, 2007, 03:12:32 PM
   I'm not going to say any of the following is good, bad, right or wrong.  But, this is what we do. 
   First off I've never been in a situation where the subject laid on the ground voluntarily and then became aggressive.  Before any extraction a use of force guide line must be followed.  Verbal orders to submit to restraints.  Then the chemical agents come into use such as: OC pepper spray, CN & CS gas.  The gas cannot be used in confined areas do to asphyxiation.  Then the use of non lethal impact munitions, however range can limit use of certain types.  Items used are 40mm foam rounds, 40mm rubber direct impact & sting balls.  Usually these items will get most inmates to submit.  A great deal of our population is at some level of mental health care.  With some of these guys chemical agents do not work at all.  The agents will also have a reduced affect against inmates who are drunk or on drugs.  We are limited in use of non lethal firearms.  In a cell we can only use foam balls against barricades.  The rubber direct impact have a minimum distance range for use.  They are limited to open distance areas such as: day rooms, hallways & the yard. 
   In a nut shell, at my institution an extraction team consists of 1. shield man, 2. baton man, 3. hand cuff man, 4. leg iron man & 5. utility man.  When going into a cell all four member compact behind the shield man and use combined force and body weight to hit and immobilize the target.  If he can be pinned into a corner, it is best.  Or he can be pinned against a wall or other solid object.  The baton man then uses his baton to strike arms or legs that get around the shield.  The other officers then grab limbs and help force the target to the ground and use combined weight on top of the target to immobilize him (Dog Pile).  Once the target is brought down the shield is removed and then the mechanical restraints are used. 
   We always have multiple extraction teams just in case.  In a cell with two occupants we use two teams.  Twelve people in a 6' X 10" cell, let the fun begin.  In an open area such as a day room or the yard, we will use multiple teams simultaneously from different directions.  Basically, all the best made plans go to hell when that cell door opens.  We've had some really crazy stuff happen.  Like Hock says, "Thrive in chaos"! ;)