Adrenaline dump is a physical reaction,which is an unconscious response to an unknown, a fear,and is associated with increased heart rate,either from anticipation and or by heightened physical demand in response to threat.
Adrenaline is another unconscious physical response that can be controlled to an extent by exposure to the scenario or stimuli.
We experience A. dump in various levels all the time,but some are so common we do not notice,such as events while driving a car,being asked to give a speach,meeting a girl/guy we are interested in.
These all cause A.Dump until we experience them enough that we do not get as worked up or fearful of the outcome.
This exposure is key to adaptability and suppression or control of adrenaline dump.
If you saw the movie "Saving Private Ryan" you see the men hit the beach and you see the war through their eyes,fear,anxiety,anticipation,slow motion,hearing loss,freezing in place or going fetal.
Then you have the experienced vet,he stop on the beach and opens his pack and gets a can and fills it with sand,he has no experiences like the rest,he is calm and intent on what he is doing,he fills the can and places it in his pack where you see the cans from all the other conflicts he has been in,he is controlled because the experience is a known ,the environment and all going on are not new and not scary to him.
If we apply exposure and scenarios(in a realistic encounter) and we make it a true encounter or as close to reality as possible the better prepared the person is when they see this for real.
(If we could get real experiences that would be a better level but exposure to life and death is hard to anticipate,no less recreate safely)
The military and some police training make it possible for people to be in a certain place at a certain time so they can surprise and attack and make training more realistic than can be done in a training environment.
(this is what we need to strive for,surprise and agression to the student when they do not expect it and get them to act then ,at that time)
If I am teaching a student something,I may suddenly and unexpectedly, just rush them,grab them and pin them to the wall and scream and yell and threaten to kill them,push and shove them around and along the wall.
The first few times they are shocked and lost,then you ask them well what would you do if it were real,everyone has a response,then when you say well why didn't you do something they have no response just excuses,after a short time they catch on that reaction at the time of event is critical,not analysis after the fact.
People will say that cardio conditioning will help control adrenaline dump,this is true to an extent,but if I take a marathon runner and grab him/her and start yelling at them,dragging them,fighting with them,if they respond and give it their all they will be spent in a few seconds,same as an out of shape person.
It is exposure to the events and the level of conflict that makes them better able to stay in the fight.
Adrenaline and heart rate seem to go hand in hand,if we can experience the event and learn to work at maximum level within that event and that will do more for control of Adrenaline than anything else,the more we experience the lower our heart rate and the lower the heart rate the more we can work in the various motor skills levels,from fine to compound to gross.
(Bruce siddle has some good amterials on this subject)
Time is a factor as we cannot fight all out for a long period,so we must learn to fight in any and all levels of Motor skills and in the various levels of adrenaline dump and end the fight or encounter as quickly as possible.
There is so much on this subject ,I hope I have given a basic understanding to the questions asked.
( my 2 cents)